Category Archives: Europe

Europe – January temperatures
The climate in Europe is largely shaped by the sea. A meridional climate change between maritime and continental from west to east is taking place over the continent, which is particularly pronounced in winter (January). This change superimposes the general south-north gradient of the temperature and leads to an arrangement of the lines of the same temperature that is not parallel to the width of a circle.

The temperature distribution clearly shows the increasing degree of thermal continentality over Europe from west to east. Due to the low sun in the winter months, the radiation balance is predominantly negative (radiation). The heat supply from the Atlantic is therefore of great importance. The air mass exchange linked to the west wind jet and the dynamic high and low pressure areas that form below it controls this process. The prevailing westerly to south-westerly currents over Europe lead to the influx of relatively mild, moist air from the Atlantic in winter (cf. 92.1). The maritime influence is most pronounced in Western Europe.

With increasing distance from the Atlantic, the degree of continentality to the east increases more and more. The negative radiation balance comes into play here more and more and causes the temperatures to fall due to the decreasing supply of mild air masses from the west. For example, the 0? ° C isotherm in January runs roughly on a line from western Scandinavia via Hamburg to the French Limestone Alps. While the January mean on the coasts of Western Europe is mostly between 5 and 10 ° C, temperatures in Northeastern Europe drop below -15 ° C.

The increasing degree of continentality from west to east is also expressed by an increase in the annual temperature amplitude. In the maritime Plymouth it is only a little more than 10 ° C, while in the continental area of ​​Petrozavodsk and Kiev it reaches values ​​of over 25 ° C. In general, the elevations of the mountains stand out as colder climatic islands (for example the Alps or the Pyrenees).

Europe – landscape during the last glacial period
The map shows Europe during the last glacial period around 20,000 years ago. Average temperatures of 4 to 8 ° C below today’s values ​​had led to strong glacier advances in the Alps and an advance of the Scandinavian inland ice masses. Due to these far-reaching climatic changes, the climatic and vegetation areas shifted towards the equator: tundra dominated in western and central Europe, boreal coniferous forests as well as deciduous and mixed forests in the Mediterranean area.

Fine calcareous rock dust of different mineral composition, which is known as loess, was blown from vegetation-free deposits of the ice, such as moraine and gravel fields as well as periglacial debris layers. Despite the inhospitable living conditions, people were already living in Europe as gatherers and hunters in this period of the Stone Age. For more information about the continent of Europe, please check

How to Get to Brussels, Belgium

Cheaper and faster to fly by plane. The schedule of the capital’s airports has direct flights to Brussels, from St. Petersburg, Kazan, Volgograd and other cities – only connecting. However, this is not the only option – you can get by air via Amsterdam or Dusseldorf, and for those who are afraid of flying, there… Read More »

Sights of Pisa, Italy

The very interesting Italian city of Pisa is located in the Tuscany region. World famous buildings such as the Leaning Tower and the Cathedral attract millions of tourists to Pisa every year. There is of course much more to see. A nice phenomenon to watch is how other tourists take a picture with the tower… Read More »

Landmarks of Costa Brava, Spain

According to securitypology, the Costa Brava is Spain ‘s most northeastern coastal area. Partly because the Costa Brava is the closest to the Netherlands of all Spanish destinations, tens of thousands of compatriots come here every year to celebrate their holiday. They can choose from a large number of seaside resorts such as Roses, L’Escala,… Read More »

The Surface of Germany

Germany can be divided into four large geographical areas: the North German Lowland, the broad belt of the Central German Highlands, the Bavarian Plateau, and a narrow fringe of Alpine foothills along the Austrian border. Old and younger tectonic movements and river erosion modeled a diverse landscape relief in the colorful rocks. The coasts of… Read More »

Athens Travel Guide, Greece

For sightseeing, an Athens travel guide really comes in handy. There is so much background and history that a guide can tell you that you would otherwise probably miss. However, Athens is changing every day. The economic crisis is not over yet and so it happens again and again that, for example, restaurants close and… Read More »

What to See in Leipzig (Germany)

According to 3rjewelry, Leipzig was founded in 1015 as a settlement at the crossroads of two of the most important European trade routes – the Royal and Imperial roads. Before him, there was a Slavic settlement Lipsk, as well as a German settlement. It received city status in 1165. In the XIII-XV centuries. Leipzig became… Read More »

Valladolid, Castile-Leon (Spain)

According to themotorcyclers, the city of Valladolid is located in the heart of the autonomous region of Castile-Leon, 90 km east of Zamora and 200 km northwest of Madrid. It is the center of the province of the same name. The exact date of the founding of the city is not known, small settlements existed… Read More »

Museums in Novosibirsk, Russia

According to relationshipsplus, there are many museums in Novosibirsk. Novosibirsk State Art Museum was established in 1957. The museum exhibits an extensive collection of paintings, drawings, icons, sculptures, arts and crafts and casting. The collections are based on art objects that were donated to the museum by the Tretyakov Gallery, the State Russian Museum, the… Read More »

Iceland Architecture and Cinema

Architecture. – Country with a very advanced architectural culture, Iceland it has been severely hit by the global economic crisis and its construction production has certainly been affected. Traditionally influenced by its climatic exceptionality, as well as by the Scandinavian design culture, Icelandic architecture is at the same time among the most open to international… Read More »

Italy Government Fascist from 31 October 1922

President – Head of Government, Prime Minister and Secretary of State: Mussolini Benito; foreign: Mussolini int., Grandi Dino (12 September 1929 – 20 July 1932), Mussolini, Ciano Galeazzo (from 11 June 1936); interiors: Mussolini, Federzoni Luigi (17 June 1924 – 6 November 1926), Mussolini; colonies – Italian Africa: Federzoni Luigi (resigned on June 17, 1924),… Read More »