Category Archives: Europe

Europe – January temperatures
The climate in Europe is largely shaped by the sea. A meridional climate change between maritime and continental from west to east is taking place over the continent, which is particularly pronounced in winter (January). This change superimposes the general south-north gradient of the temperature and leads to an arrangement of the lines of the same temperature that is not parallel to the width of a circle.

The temperature distribution clearly shows the increasing degree of thermal continentality over Europe from west to east. Due to the low sun in the winter months, the radiation balance is predominantly negative (radiation). The heat supply from the Atlantic is therefore of great importance. The air mass exchange linked to the west wind jet and the dynamic high and low pressure areas that form below it controls this process. The prevailing westerly to south-westerly currents over Europe lead to the influx of relatively mild, moist air from the Atlantic in winter (cf. 92.1). The maritime influence is most pronounced in Western Europe.

With increasing distance from the Atlantic, the degree of continentality to the east increases more and more. The negative radiation balance comes into play here more and more and causes the temperatures to fall due to the decreasing supply of mild air masses from the west. For example, the 0? ° C isotherm in January runs roughly on a line from western Scandinavia via Hamburg to the French Limestone Alps. While the January mean on the coasts of Western Europe is mostly between 5 and 10 ° C, temperatures in Northeastern Europe drop below -15 ° C.

The increasing degree of continentality from west to east is also expressed by an increase in the annual temperature amplitude. In the maritime Plymouth it is only a little more than 10 ° C, while in the continental area of ​​Petrozavodsk and Kiev it reaches values ​​of over 25 ° C. In general, the elevations of the mountains stand out as colder climatic islands (for example the Alps or the Pyrenees).

Europe – landscape during the last glacial period
The map shows Europe during the last glacial period around 20,000 years ago. Average temperatures of 4 to 8 ° C below today’s values ​​had led to strong glacier advances in the Alps and an advance of the Scandinavian inland ice masses. Due to these far-reaching climatic changes, the climatic and vegetation areas shifted towards the equator: tundra dominated in western and central Europe, boreal coniferous forests as well as deciduous and mixed forests in the Mediterranean area.

Fine calcareous rock dust of different mineral composition, which is known as loess, was blown from vegetation-free deposits of the ice, such as moraine and gravel fields as well as periglacial debris layers. Despite the inhospitable living conditions, people were already living in Europe as gatherers and hunters in this period of the Stone Age. For more information about the continent of Europe, please check

Iceland Architecture and Cinema

Architecture. – Country with a very advanced architectural culture, Iceland it has been severely hit by the global economic crisis and its construction production has certainly been affected. Traditionally influenced by its climatic exceptionality, as well as by the Scandinavian design culture, Icelandic architecture is at the same time among the most open to international… Read More »

Italy Government Fascist from 31 October 1922

President – Head of Government, Prime Minister and Secretary of State: Mussolini Benito; foreign: Mussolini int., Grandi Dino (12 September 1929 – 20 July 1932), Mussolini, Ciano Galeazzo (from 11 June 1936); interiors: Mussolini, Federzoni Luigi (17 June 1924 – 6 November 1926), Mussolini; colonies – Italian Africa: Federzoni Luigi (resigned on June 17, 1924),… Read More »

Russia Between “Troubled Times” and Peter the Great

The Polish and Swedish invasion also accentuated the aversion against “foreigners” in the rebel camp; in the struggles against the Poles that followed this new situation, the Cossacks and the peasants on the one hand, the Russian conservative forces on the other, sometimes apparently fight as allies: in reality, however, they remain adversaries and try… Read More »

Germany Geography

Climate The climate presents transitional characteristics between the oceanic regimes of Atlantic Europe and the continental ones of the Russian plain. Overall, however, the temperate oceanic influence is still noticeable in winter, so that climates are milder than latitude (between 47 ° and 55 ° N) might suggest. The modest elevation of the reliefs, except… Read More »

Romania Flora and Fauna

Vegetation and flora. – The vegetation of Romania has characteristics due to the continental climate: the large temperature fluctuations between winter and summer, the abundance of spring and summer rains, the autumn drought determine a general trend towards the development of steppe vegetation, which occurs especially in Dobruja, in Moldavia, in eastern Wallachia. Three regions… Read More »

Russia Environment

Russia is home, especially in Siberia, to very large expanses of intact land, where the vegetation develops spontaneously, except for the damage caused by atmospheric pollution and by crossing roads, electricity or gas pipelines. In the western section of the Russian territory, the succession of the various soil and vegetable belts, from S to N.… Read More »

Leipzig, Germany Economy

Leipzig, independent city in Saxony, an average of 118 m above sea level, in the Leipzig lowland bay at the confluence of the Parthe, Pleiße and Weißer Elster rivers, (2019) 593 100 residents. The central location of Leipzig within Central Europe has greatly favored the development of traffic and the diverse trade relations and created… Read More »

Burren and Glendalough, Ireland

Burren Ireland’s spectacular karst landscape If you dream of traveling to Ireland, you will have landscapes like the Burren in mind. In County Clare in western Ireland, around 250 square kilometers, there is a green karst landscape that has formed the Burren National Park since 1991. The area is approximately an hour’s drive from Galway.… Read More »

Lyon, Vence and Nice, France

Vence Vence is a picturesque town on the Côte d’Azur, right at the foot of the French Maritime Alps. Perched high on a rock, the city, which belongs to the Nice metropolitan area, was founded in Roman times. Vence has numerous historical monuments and attractions. Above all, the historic old town of the town gives… Read More »

Romania History

People’s democracy and communist rule (1945 / 47–89) Left alone by the Western powers (Churchill-Stalin Agreement, Moscow October 9, 1944), there was a rapid transformation into a “people’s democracy”; on March 6, 1945 Michael was forced to set up a coalition government of the “National Democratic Front” under P. Groza (1945–52), in which the Communist… Read More »