Time is merciless to historical monuments, this can be said about the main attraction of the city – the Luxor Temple. This building was completely covered with sand for many years. The first excavations of the temple date back to the 19th century. Over the years, the monument has literally risen from the sand. The temple is dedicated to the god Amun-Ra, his wife Mut and son Khonsu. The architecture of the building is replete with many columns, frescoes, statues depicting gods. Since the temple was built for several centuries, each of the rulers of Egypt of the XIX dynasty contributed to the architecture of the building. During the reign of Tutankhamun, 74 high and massive columns were erected, between which huge statues of pharaohs were placed. Ramses the Great glorified his military exploits with the help of frescoes on the inside of the northern pylon.
An alley of sphinxes adjoins the majestic open-air temple on the north side. The temple complex itself was originally surrounded by 6 huge statues of Pharaoh Ramses, but only 2 have survived today.
KARNAK TEMPLE COMPLEX
Built in 2000 BC, the Karnak temple is literally replete with various architectural monuments, compositions, and ancient artifacts. Excavations of this building, which covers an area of more than 40 hectares, began in the 19th century and continue to this day. The complex itself is divided by a large block wall into three zones. The temple is dedicated to the gods Amon, his wife Mut, the god of war Montu. Each of the 40 pharaohs who participated in the construction of the complex contributed to the architecture of the building, adding obelisks, pylons, alleys, columns, statues to the temple.
The heart of the complex is the hypostyle hall, on the territory of which there are 34 pylons, more than 20 meters high. Each pylon is a kind of “walk of fame” of the pharaohs, who erected these buildings in honor of themselves and their families. On the surface of the colossal pillars, you can see the statues of the pharaohs Ramses, Nectaneb, Horemheb and other rulers. Their family members are also depicted on the columns. Karnak Temple is a large complex that combines various ancient Egyptian eras. It is worth noting that one day is not enough to get around all the monuments. It will take several excursions to admire the ancient beauties and ancient artifacts.
TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT
Hatshepsut is the only female pharaoh who left a significant mark on the history of ancient Egypt. The ruler was equated with the gods and a magnificent three-tiered temple was built in her honor, which has been well preserved to this day.
The structure consists of three terraces, on which gardens of myrrh trees were laid out, sculptures and obelisks were installed. The terraces are divided by a wide ramp, on which steps are carved. The very structure of the temple is closely adjacent to the high mountains.
The terraces are decorated with columns on which pilasters with the image of Hatshepsut were carved. Also on the terraces are sphinxes and statues. Some stone sculptures were transported from the temple to various museums around the world.
On the second terrace are two hypostyle halls with 24 huge columns built in honor of Anubis and Hathor. From these halls, rooms were carved into the depths of the mountain, in which offerings to the gods were kept. The walls between the halls are decorated with paintings depicting the ruler.
The third terrace is dedicated to the god Ra.
This beautiful building, located near Luxor, in Dendera, is dedicated to the goddess Hothor, who is the patroness of motherhood and love. Today it is the best preserved ancient monument founded in the 1st century BC. The construction of the temple was patronized by Queen Cleopatra II. In the future, the temple was decorated and completed by other rulers of ancient Thebes.
The building is divided into several halls divided into sections. The first hall is decorated with massive and high columns, on which the faces of the goddess are carved. The walls between the columns are decorated with scenes depicting sacrificial rituals in honor of Hothor painted and carved on stone. Particular attention is drawn to the ceiling of the large hall, divided into 7 fragments. Only 3 astronomical sections are well preserved.
The next hall of the temple is decorated with columns standing on granite pedestals. In the walls of the room there are niches in which offerings and valuable items were kept. In the largest chapel, located in the central hall, there are 2 altars. One was used for rituals, the second for sacrifices. Also on the territory of the temple there are several more chapels dedicated to other gods.