Chad. A large part of the population was in need of food aid from outside because the harvesters failed due to drought and insect pests. In January, the UN announced that it was investing the equivalent of over SEK 40 million on food supplies to approximately 4.5 million people in Chad. Over 125,000 children suffered from acute malnutrition.
UN Children’s Fund UNICEF reported during the year that child mortality dropped significantly in the world in two decades, but Chad was one of the exceptions and was one of the countries where more children die today than 1990. According to the World Bank, Chad has the world’s highest child mortality rate with 209 deaths in five years per 1,000 born (figures from 2009).
- AbbreviationFinder.org: Provides most commonly used acronyms and abbreviations for Chad. Also includes location map, major cities, and country overview.
At the same time as the oil money regime carried out major new construction projects in the capital N’Djamena, more than half of the people lived below the poverty line. The situation was exacerbated by the large number of refugees from neighboring countries. Nine years after the civil war in Darfur, Sudan, tens of thousands of refugees were left in eastern Chad.
In July, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague ruled that Senegal must bring Chad’s former President Hissène Habré to trial immediately or ensure that he is extradited to Belgium, who can prosecute for human rights violations wherever committed. Habré had been in house arrest in Senegal since 2005.
Senegal agreed with the African Union that a special court should be set up for a trial against Habré, who is considered responsible for the murder and torture of tens of thousands of people in 1982-90.
The Chadian military joined the Central African Republic at the end of the year after the neighboring country’s president Francois Bozizé asked for help to defeat a rebel insurgency.
According to countryaah, the population of Chad in 2012 was 14,110,864, ranking number 72 in the world. The population growth rate was 3.380% yearly, and the population density was 11.2063 people per km2.
The country , given its extension, presents different regions from geomorphological point of view: S and E emerges a penepiano lens, which does not fall below 300 m and from which emerge isolated reliefs; sedimentary plateaus appear to the North and NE, such as those of Erdi and Ennedi (1200-1500 m); to the NW rises the Tibesti massif, where the relief, of volcanic origin, of Emi Koussi reaches 3415 meters. The central-southern part of the territory consists of a lowland crossed by the river Chari, by the Logone and their tributaries, as well as minor temporary streams. The southern regions have a subequatorial climate, with two rainy seasons (800-1000 mm) and prevalence of the wooded savannah, with stretches of tunnel forest. The central-northern part has an arid tropical climate, with a single short rainy season that progressively decreases as the Sahelian area passes into the Saharan desert belt.
The population of Chad is mainly made up of Sudanese, with large nuclei of Fulbe and Arab or Arabized people. 54% are Muslim, but Christianity (Catholics and Protestants) is also widespread (34%), especially in the South. About 7% of the population practices cults of the local tradition.
Demographic development, as in all other young African countries, is quite sustained (2.2% per year, 2008 estimate), with still very high birth rates (41.61 ‰ in 2008) and death rates (16.39 ‰) which reduce very slowly. The lack of health facilities (life expectancy at birth: 47 years), the high risk of infectious diseases and the spread of illiteracy (more than 50% of the population) are just as many indicators of a situation of social degradation and poverty that it still affects most of the national community. The population density, on the whole very low, increases in the southern part of the country, where agriculture finds more suitable conditions and where, on a quarter of the territory, more than half of the residents are concentrated. The forms of settlement are almost exclusively rural (90% of the population); the urban phenomenon is in fact limited to the capital (for which 818,600 residents are estimated in 2010 and whose territory constitutes, from an administrative point of view, a special region) and a very few other centers such as Sarh (formerly Fort Archambault) and Moundou.