Bahrain. The year was marked by the aftermath of the popular revolt against the monarchy in 2011 and by almost daily demonstrations that police in the capital Manama tried to stop. Pärltorget, the center of the protests in 2011, was closed off but the protesters found other meeting points. The police’s massive tear gas use, often in cars or other enclosed rooms, was sharply criticized by the American organization Human Rights Doctors, which reported that several activists had been killed by tear gas. On October 30, the government banned all further demonstrations, reportedly after two police officers were killed. Most of the protesters belonged to the country’s Shiite majority, who believed that King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa and his Sunni Muslim allies oppressed them.
The government, which reads directly under the king, in January appointed a new civil body to review some of the judgments that military courts have made against democracy activists. At the same time, the King decided on amendments to the constitution which meant that Parliament was granted increased power, including in the form of authority to ask ministers. The government also announced that damages totaling $ 2.6 million would be paid to relatives of 17 of the activists who had been killed during the violence.
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Trials were pending against the 95 health care workers who had been arrested in connection with the demonstrations in 2011. Nine of those convicted in 2011 of being involved in the revolt were released by a civil court in June, while nine others were sentenced to a sentence of up to five years in prison. Two doctors who were tried in their absence were given 15-year prison sentences. Another 23 of the accused were sentenced in November to shorter prison sentences that could be set off against fines. The doctors and nurses were sentenced, among other things. for taking part in the demonstrations, but critics said they had only done their job when they were injured.
Abdulhadi al-Khawaja, who starved in the spring, was among the most ambitious opposition prisoners. He and several other prisoners were given a new trial in a civil court, after which he ended his hunger strike but got his life sentence fixed. Several other regime critics were also sentenced during the year to shorter or longer prison sentences and some 30 oppositionists were deprived of their citizenship. Eight people were also convicted of terrorist offenses in collaboration with Iran. Three of them were sentenced in their absence.
The human rights organization Amnesty International reported in November that the abuses escalated and that torture, even of children, was common. According to official data in November, about 60 people had been killed since the regime intervened against the riots in March 2011.
Despite protests from the outside world, which claimed to legitimize the regime, on April 22, a Formula 1 race was held just outside Manama. The security requirement was massive.
According to countryaah, the population of Bahrain in 2012 was 1,371,740, ranking number 152 in the world. The population growth rate was 2.030% yearly, and the population density was 1805.0671 people per km2.